In electrical engineering everything depends upon electric charge. Electric charge and concepts of electric charge are discussed here.
I have already discussed advantages of electrical energy over other forms of energy. So its time to move on to electrical engineering's basic concepts.
Friends, electricity is all about the flow of current and its effects so we will discuss about the origin of current and obviously that is charge. So lets start with charge.
Electric Charge : -
Electric charge is property of a matter or substance due to which electric force is experienced between two particles. Basically electric charge is just an additional property of electrons or protons in an atom that give rise to electric force between them.
You are familiar with mass or weight of a body, weight of the body give rise to force of attraction between two particles similarly electric charge give rise to another force of attraction or repulsion called electrostatic force.
I said force of repulsion or attraction because electrostatic forces are of two types depending upon the type of charge present on two bodies.
Types of Charges : -
Charges are of two types : -
- Negative Charges
Positive Charges : -
If atoms of a particle loose electron then the particle acquires positive charge. It is denoted by a positive sign on the atomic symbol.
For Example, after loosing two electrons Calcium atom is represented as Ca2+
Negative Charges : -
Similarly, if atom(s) of a particle gain electron then the particle acquires negative charge. It is denoted by a negative sign on the atomic symbol. For Example, after gaining two electrons Oxygen is represented by O2-
Properties of Electric Charge : -
Additive in nature : -
As we know that mass of a particle is algebraic sum of its constituent particles similarly total charges distributed on the different parts of the object is algebraic sum of individual charge and this property is called additive nature of charge.
Quantization of electric charge : -
The charge on an particle is integer multiple of elementary charge that is 1.6*10-/+19
. This is called quantization of charge.
Conservation of electric Charge : -
Just like the total energy of an isolated system, electric charge also remains constant this property of charge is called Conservation of electric charge. In other words " Charge can neither be created nor be destroyed, it can be transfered from one body to another. "
Force between two charges : -
As I said earlier that charges on two bodies causes some kind of electrostatic force this force is similar to gravitational force. The main difference is in nature of the force. In gravitational force only attractive force is produced while in electrostatics both kind of attractive and repulsive force can be observed. If we are placing two like charges repulsive or negative force will be observed similarly if we are placing two unlike charges attractive or positive force will be observed.
So Friends, This was all about the Electric Charge. In next article we will discuss about the basics of electric field.